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Ballistics and Powder Models
Our highly sophisticated ballistics calculator takes all relevant aspects into consideration such as powder characteristics, bullets and cartridge dimensions. The underlying models are extensively covered in the relevant literature. The specifics are to calibrate these models to real tests in order to improve the accuracy of the models. We have worked with one of the most well-known experts in this space to fine-tune our models and calculator for best results.
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The 223 Remington is a rifle cartridge, originally developed in 1957 as a commercial hunting bullet for varmint hunting. The first rifle chambered for it came out in 1963. It has continued to be a popular civilian small game hunting cartridge. Though it finds occasional use on medium game, this is not recommended and is illegal in at least ten U.S. states and the United Kingdom, where the .243 Winchester or similar cartridges are the smallest bore cartridges that are legal for hunting deer.
A military version, M193, with a 55-gr full metal jacket bullet was used by the United States Army in the M16 rifle. The 5.56×45mm NATO was also developed from the 223 Remington.
The .243 Winchester (6.2×52mm) is a popular sporting rifle cartridge. Developed as a versatile short action cartridge to hunt both medium game and small game alike, it "took whitetail hunting by storm" when introduced in 1955, and remains one of the most popular whitetail deer cartridges. It is also commonly used for harvesting blacktail deer, pronghorns and mule deer with heavier rounds, and is equally suited to varmint hunting with lighter rounds. The .243 is based on a necked down .308 Winchester, introduced only three years earlier. Expanding monolithic copper bullets of approximately 80 to 85 grains or traditional lead rounds of 90 to 105 grains with controlled expansion designs are best suited for hunting medium game, while lighter rounds are intended for varmints.
In at least ten U.S. states and the United Kingdom, the .243 or similar cartridges are the smallest bore cartridges that are legal for hunting deer. The cartridge can be extremely accurate to 300 yards (270 m) and beyond, but may not retain enough terminal energy to reliably drop medium game at that distance. Highly experienced hunters use the .243 Winchester to routinely drop bucks up to 250 pounds (110 kg), while young and/or female hunters can be just as capable with the .243 because of its very low recoil yet high velocity. Besides hunting applications, the cartridge is popular with target and metallic silhouette shooters for those same recoil and velocity properties, with superb accuracy.The .243 Winchester has regularly made the top five of rankings for "Best Whitetail Deer Hunting Cartridges" from sources such as Field and Stream and Outdoor Life, and its widespread popularity (called the "whitetail hunter's favorite" by the Browning Arms Company and "American favorite" by American Rifleman) assures chamberings in newly manufactured offerings of not only bolt-action rifles, but also semiautomatic rifles (e.g., Browning BAR), lever action rifles (e.g., Henry Long Ranger), and pump action rifles (e.g., Remington 7600). Gun Digest estimates that (as of the end of 2018) the .243 Winchester is the second-most popular of all hunting rifle chamberings (after the long action .30-06). Commentators such as popular ammunition author Chuck Hawks have opined that the .243 Winchester (as a "6mm NATO" round) should replace the 5.56×45mm NATO (.223 Remington) for most United States Armed Forces use cases but the .243 has, as of 2021, never been used as a military cartridge.
The .270 Winchester is a rifle cartridge developed by Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1923 and unveiled in 1925 as a chambering for their bolt-action Model 54. The cartridge is the same length as the .280 Remington, both of which are longer than the .30-06 Springfield. The .270, .280, and .30-06 were all derived from the .30-03 parent case that came from the German 8x57 Mauser case which itself was based on the earlier 7x57 Mauser case. The .270 Winchester uses a .270 inch (6.86 mm) bore diameter and a .277 inch (7.04 mm) bullet diameter.
The .270 Winchester became a very popular cartridge due to the widespread praises of gunwriters like Townsend Whelen and Jack O'Connor who used the cartridge for 40 years and touted its merits in the pages of Outdoor Life. It drives an 8.4 grams (130 gr) bullet at approximately 960 m/s (3,140 ft/s), later reduced to 930 m/s (3,060 ft/s). The cartridge demonstrated high performance at the time of its introduction and was marketed as being suitable for big game shooting in the 270 to 460 metres (300 to 500 yd) range, when that was considered long range hunting. With modern bullets and optics, it is easily a 1,000 yard cartridge. Two additional bullet weights were soon introduced: a 6.5 grams (100 gr) hollow-point bullet for vermin shooting, and a 9.7 grams (150 gr) bullet for deer, elk, and moose in big-game hunting. Renowned gunsmith Harold Fredd considers the 270 to be one of the most versatile cartridges for North American hunting and has recently started promoting it for small to medium sized plains games.
The .300 Winchester Magnum (also known as .300 Win Mag or 300WM) (7.62×67mmB) is a belted, bottlenecked magnum rifle cartridge that was introduced by Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1963. The .300 Winchester Magnum is a magnum cartridge designed to fit in a standard rifle action. It is based on the .375 H&H Magnum, which has been blown out, shortened, and necked down to accept a .30 caliber (7.62 mm) bullet.
The .300 Winchester is extremely versatile and has been adopted by a wide range of users including hunters, target shooters, military units, and law enforcement departments. Hunters found the cartridge to be an effective all-around choice with bullet options ranging from the flatter shooting 165 grain to the harder hitting 200+ grain selections available from the factory. The .300 Win Mag remains the most popular .30 caliber magnum with American hunters, despite being surpassed in performance by the more powerful .300 and .30-378 Weatherby Magnums and the newer .300 Remington Ultra Magnum. It is a popular selection for hunting moose, elk, and bighorn sheep as it can deliver better long range performance with better bullet weight than most other .30 caliber cartridges. Military and law enforcement departments adopted the cartridge for long range sniping and marksmanship. As a testament to its accuracy, since its introduction it has gone on to win several 1,000-yard (910 m) competitions.
The .308 Winchester is one of the most popular hunting cartridges in the United States, and possibly the world. It has gained popularity in many countries as an exceptional cartridge for game in the medium- to large-sized class. In North America it is used extensively on whitetail deer, pronghorn and even the occasional caribou or black bear.
Clay Harvey, an American gun writer, said it is usable on moose and elk. Layne Simpson, an American who has hunted in Sweden, said he is surprised how many hunters there used the cartridge. Craig Boddington was told by a Norma Precision executive that the .308 Winchester was one of Norma's best-selling calibers.In Africa the .308 Winchester is one of the most popular calibers among Bushveld hunters and is used on anything from duiker right up to the massive eland (a small and large African antelope respectively). Proponents of the hydrostatic shock theory contend that the .308 Winchester has sufficient energy to impart hydrostatic shock to living targets when rapidly expanding bullets deliver a high rate of energy transfer.While .308 Winchester has traditionally been the most popular cartridge in the past, the development of lighter recoil chamberings with sufficient downrange energy, like the 7mm-08 Remington, .260 Remington, and 6.5 Creedmoor, is becoming more common for metallic silhouette shooting.
The .357 Smith & Wesson Magnum, .357 S&W Magnum, .357 Magnum, or 9×33mmR as it is known in unofficial metric designation, is a smokeless powder cartridge with a .357-inch (9.07 mm) bullet diameter. It was created by Elmer Keith, Phillip B. Sharpe, and Douglas B. Wesson of firearms manufacturers Smith & Wesson and Winchester.
It is based upon Smith & Wesson's earlier .38 Special cartridge. The .357 Magnum cartridge was introduced in 1934, and its use has since become widespread. This cartridge started the "Magnum era" of handgun ammunition. The .357 Magnum cartridge is notable for its highly effective terminal ballistics.
The .375 H&H Magnum also known as .375 Holland & Holland Magnum is a medium-bore rifle cartridge introduced in 1912 by London based gunmaker Holland & Holland. The .375 H&H cartridge featured a belt to ensure the correct headspace, which otherwise might be unreliable, given the narrow shoulder of the cartridge case. The cartridge was designed to use cordite which was made in long strands – hence the tapered shape of the case, which, as a beneficial side effect also helped in smooth chambering and extraction from a rifle's breech.
The .375 H&H often is cited as one of the most useful all-round rifle cartridges, especially in shooting large and dangerous game. With bullet weights ranging from 270 grains (17 g) to 350 grains (23 g), it has the necessary punch for small to medium game, as well as large, thick-skinned dangerous game. The most common bullet weight available in this caliber is 300 grains (19 g). In many regions with thick-skinned dangerous game animals, the .375 H&H is seen as the minimum acceptable caliber, and in many places (primarily in Africa) it is now the legal minimum for hunting such game. African game guides, professional hunters, and dangerous game cullers have repeatedly voted the .375 H&H as their clear preference for an all-round caliber if they could have only one rifle. Alaskan game guides have expressed a similar preference for brown bear and polar bear country.Unlike many other calibers, .375 H&H Magnum rifles achieve nearly the same point of impact over a wide range of bullet weights at all commonly used distances. This simplifies a hunter's choice in selecting different bullet weights, based upon the game hunted, by requiring fewer scope or sight adjustments, which further serves to popularize the .375 H&H Magnum among professional hunters.[
The .38 Smith & Wesson Special, also commonly known as .38 S&W Special, .38 Special, .38 Spl, .38 Spc, (pronounced "thirty-eight special"), or 9x29mmR is a rimmed, centerfire cartridge designed by Smith & Wesson. It is most commonly used in revolvers, although some semi-automatic pistols and carbines also use this round. The .38 Special was the standard service cartridge for the vast majority of United States police departments from the 1920s to the 1990s, and it was also a common sidearm cartridge used by United States military personnel in World War I, World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. In other parts of the world, it is known by its metric designation of 9×29.5mmR or 9.1×29mmR.
Known for its accuracy and manageable recoil, the .38 Special remains one of the most popular revolver cartridges in the world more than a century after its introduction. It is used for target shooting, formal target competition, personal defense, and for hunting small game.
The 6.5mm Creedmoor (6.5×48 mm), designated 6.5 Creedmoor by SAAMI, 6.5 Creedmoor by the C.I.P. or 6.5 CM or 6.5 CRDMR for short, is a centerfire rifle cartridge introduced by Hornady in 2007, developed by Hornady Senior Ballistics Scientist Dave Emary in partnership with Dennis DeMille, the Vice-President of Product Development at Creedmoor Sports, hence the name. The cartridge is a necked down modification of the .30 TC.
The 6.5mm Creedmoor was designed specifically for long-range target shooting, although it has success in game hunting. Bullet-for-bullet, the 6.5mm Creedmoor achieves a slower muzzle velocity than longer cartridges such as the 6.5-284 Norma or magnum cartridges such as the 6.5mm Remington Magnum. However, due to its overall length of 2.825 inches (71.8 mm), it is capable of chambering in short-action rifles. A great handloading cartridge.
The 7×64mm (also unofficially known as the 7×64mm Brenneke, though its designer's name was never officially added as a part of the cartridge name) is a rimless bottlenecked centerfire cartridge developed for hunting. As is customary in European cartridges, the 7 denotes the 7 mm bullet caliber and the 64 denotes the 64 mm (2.5 in) case length. The 7×64mm is a popular hunting cartridge in Central Europe due to its 11.95 mm (0.470 in) case head diameter and 84 mm (3.3 in) overall length allowing it to easily be chambered in the Mauser 98 bolt action rifle that was once standard German military issue.
The 7.92×57mm Mauser (designated as the 8mm Mauser or 8×57mm by the SAAMI and 8 × 57 IS by the C.I.P.) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge. The 8mm Mauser cartridge was adopted by the German Empire in 1903–1905, and was the German service cartridge in both World Wars. In its day, the 8mm Mauser cartridge was one of the world's most popular military cartridges. In the 21st century it is still a popular sport and hunting cartridge that is factory-produced in Europe and the United States. It is suited for short barrels.
The 9×19 mm Parabellum, 9 mm Parabellum, or 9 mm Luger is a firearms cartridge that was designed by Georg Luger and introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) (German Weapons and Munitions Factory) for its Luger semi-automatic pistol. For this reason, it is designated as the 9 mm Luger by the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI), and the 9 mm Luger by the Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives (CIP).The name Parabellum is derived from the Latin motto of DWM, Si vis pacem, para bellum ("If you seek peace, prepare for war").
Under STANAG 4090, it is a standard cartridge for NATO forces as well as many non-NATO countries.
According to the 2014 edition of Cartridges of the World, the 9×19 mm Parabellum is "the world's most popular and widely used military handgun and submachine gun cartridge." In 2007, Newsweek claimed that "about 60 percent of the firearms in use by police are 9 mms" and credited 9×19 mm Parabellum pistol sales with making semiautomatic pistols more popular than revolvers. The popularity of this cartridge can be attributed to the widely held conviction that it is effective in police and self-defense use. Its low cost and wide availability contribute to the caliber's continuing popularity.
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